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While both general insurance premiums and long-term care insurance premiums are calculated on a monthly basis, the insurance premiums (insured person's share) that your employer can deduct from your salary and other pay is limited to the insurance premiums for the previous month. This restriction is intended to help protect the livelihood of those insured.
In other words, even if you become eligible for insurance during the middle of the month, a full month's insurance premiums will be deducted from your salary in the following month. But if you forfeit your eligibility—for example, because you leave your company—the premiums will not be collected for that month. If you leave your job on the last day of the month, however, the date on which you forfeit your eligibility will be the first day of the following month; in this case, premiums will be collected for the month in which you left your job.
Insurance premiums paid from bonuses are deducted in the month in which the bonus is paid.